• Vandaële E
  • PV 233
  • Mars 2003
  • : Chien, chat

Pour en savoir plus sur Eurican Herpes 205

Documentation de l'Agence européenne du médicament.
Rapport d'évaluation (en anglais)
Résumé des caractéristiques du produit (RCP européen).

Poulet H et coll. Protection of puppies against canine herpesvirus by vaccination of the dams.
Vet. Record. 2001, Vol.148, No.22, pp.691-695,

B) Pour en savoir plus sur l'herpèsvirose canine

Thiry Étienne.
Herpesvirose canine. In: Virologie clinique du chien et du chat.
Éditions du Point Vétérinaire. 2002, p. 49 à 56. Disponible à la librairie du Point Vétérinaire, Pour en savoir plus

Fontbonne A.
Conduite à tenir lors d'avortement chez la chienne.
Le Point Vétérinaire. 1997;28(183):1251-1258.

L'herpesvirose canine
Poulet H, Dubourget P.
Le Point Vétérinaire. 1993;25(151):69-75.

Herpès virose canine.
Mimouni Ph.
PMCAC 2001;36:595-602

Lacheretz, A, Cognard, S.
Épidémiologie et diagnostic sérologique de l'herpèsvirose canine.
Rev. Méd. Vet. 1998;149:853- 856.

C) Sélection de références bibliographiques récentes sur l'herpèsvirose canine

Etudes épidémiologiques

TITRE : Epidemiology and serological diagnosis of canine herpesvirus infection.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Epidémiologie et diagnostic sérologique de l'herpèsvirose canine.
AUTEURS: Lacheretz, A.; Cognard, S.
SOURCE : Revue de Médecine vétérinaire, 1998, Vol.149, No.8/9, pp.853- 856, 8 ref.
ABSTRACT : Of 199 blood samples from dogs tested by the Laboratoire Rhône-Mérieux, Lyons, France, between October 1994 and February 1996, 86 were positive for antibodies against canine herpesvirus (CHV) in an immunofluorescence test. The CHV infection rates rose from approximately 30% in dogs <4 years old to approximately 75% in dogs >4 years of age. It is suggested that the infection is mainly acquired by direct and repeated contacts. It is concluded that the humoral immune response is quick and coincides with the clinical signs and that serological diagnosis is useful in the diagnosis of the disease.

TITRE : Seroprevalence of canine herpesvirus-1 in the Belgian dog population in 2000.
AUTEURS: Ronsse, V.; Verstegen, J.; Onclin, K.; Guiot, A. L.; Aeberle, C.; Nauwynck, H. J.; Poulet, H.
SOURCE : Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 2002, Vol.37, No.5, pp.299- 304, 30 ref.
ABSTRACT : Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is known to be associated with fertility and fecundity disorders as well as neonatal mortality in puppies of <3 weeks of age. The virus is presumed to be enzootic in dogs all over the world and recent studies in several European countries suggest a high seroprevalence among the dog population. In the year 2000, a total of 647 Belgian canine sera from 102 privately owned patients and 545 breeding dogs were analysed with ELISA. Furthermore, 77 of the samples were submitted to two serum neutralization (SN) tests for comparison. An overall CHV-1 seroprevalence of 45.75% was observed in the Belgian dog population. No significant differences could be observed based on breeding status, reason for consultation or sex. The correlation between the ELISA and both SN tests appeared to be moderate with a significantly greater sensitivity of the ELISA. This study also demonstrated that the CHV-1 seroprevalence in the Belgian dog population is similar to that in other recently investigated European countries and that the incidence in breeding units is not necessarily higher than in non-breeding dogs.

TITRE : Prevalence of antibodies against canine herpesvirus 1 in dogs in The Netherlands in 1997-1998.
AUTEURS: Rijsewijk, F. A. M.; Luiten, E. J.; Daus, F. J.; Heijden, R. W. van der; Oirschot, J. T. van
SOURCE : Veterinary Microbiology, 1999, Vol.65, No.1, pp.1-7, 13 ref.
ABSTRACT : An ELISA was developed for the detection of antibodies against canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1). The antigen used in the ELISA was prepared by purifying CHV1 virions from the medium of infected A72 cells. Serum samples from dogs boarding at a kennel in Lelystad, The Netherlands, were screened using the ELISA. The dogs originated from all parts of The Netherlands and represented many different breeds. The sera were collected both at the start and at the end of the boarding period. Of the 145 paired sera tested, 61 (42.1%) were positive, 79 (54.5%) were negative and 5 (3.4%) could not be attributed to either group. None of the negative dogs became seropositive during the boarding period, which normally lasted 2-3 weeks. 79 individual sera taken from dogs at various locations in The Netherlands were also tested; 27 (34.2%) were positive. It is concluded that the prevalence of CHV1 seropositive dogs in The Netherlands was about 40%, and that boarding at a kennel did not contribute to the spread of CHV1. The isolation of CHV1 from 2 clinical cases of fatal haemorrhagic disease in The Netherlands is also reported.

TITRE : A serological study of canine herpes virus-1 infection in the English dog population.
AUTEURS: Reading, M. J.; Field, H. J.
SOURCE : Archives of Virology, 1998, Vol.143, No.8, pp.1477-1488, 19 ref.
ABSTRACT : The prevalence of canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) antibodies was investigated in a population of 325 pet dogs in England [at an unspecified date]. The dogs were from a wide variety of locations in England and had a mean age of 7.5 years (range 7 days to 15 years). Sera were analysed for the presence of CHV-1 neutralizing antibody by means of a serum neutralization test and for virus-specific IgG and IgM by means of ELISAs. In the ELISAs, 285 dogs (88%) were considered positive for IgG with titres of more than or equal to 500 and 255 (78%) for IgM with ELISA titres of more than or equal to 50. 247 dogs (76%) had neutralizing titres of more than or equal to 2 and were considered seropositive by this test. The proportion of dogs that were positive by at least 1 of the 3 tests was 94%. It is concluded that CHV-1 infection is common among the domestic dog population of England.

TITRE : Canine herpesvirus infection serological survey in Sicily.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Infezione da Canine herpesvirus risultati di una indagine epidemiologica in cani della Sicilia.
AUTEURS: Rinaldo, D.; Macri, F.; Daidone, A.; Ginoprelli, T.; Fisichella, V.; Buonavoglia, D.
SOURCE : Praxis Veterinaria (Milano), 2000, Vol.21, No.2, pp.8-10, 21 ref.
ABSTRACT : The results of a serological survey on canine herpesvirus (CHV) in dogs in Sicily are reported. The survey was carried out by seroneutralization test (SN) on 300 sera samples collected from dogs at veterinary surgeries in Messina province, at two kennels in Catania and Palermo. Antibodies to CHV were detected in 65 samples (21,6%).

TITRE : Prevalence of canine herpesvirus in kennels and the possible association with fertility problems and neonatal death.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Prevalentie van het caniene herpesvirus in kennels en het mogelijk verband met vruchtbaarheidsproblemen en neonatale sterfte.
AUTEURS: Gucht, S. van; Nauwynck, H.; Pensaert, M.
SOURCE : Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 2001, Vol.70, No.3, pp.204-211, 12 ref.
ABSTRACT : The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV1) in breeding bitches in Belgian kennels and to relate this to fertility problems and/or neonatal death. By using a seroneutralization test with complement to detect anti-CHV1 antibodies, a prevalence of 49.5% was found in a population of 97 breeding bitches in 18 kennels. In nine kennels, all examined breeding bitches were negative. In the other nine kennels 2/3 to all of the examined breeding bitches were positive. In seven kennels with positive breeding bitches serious problems were observed concerning neonatal death and/or infertility, whereas only one kennel with negative breeding bitches had problems with infertility, which indicates that there is a relation between the presence of positive breeding bitches and neonatal death and/or infertility in the kennel. This relationship was also observed at the animal level. 76% of the bitches that had recently lost a litter before the age of 3 weeks and 57% of the bitches with fertility problems were positive. In contrast, only 33% of the "problem-free" bitches were positive. It was concluded that CHV1 is kennel-related and that kennels, where the virus is enzootically present, experience neonatal death and infertility more frequently.

TITRE : Canine herpesvirus infection. Serological survey in Apulia.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Infezione da herpesvirus del cane. Diffusione sierologica in Puglia.
AUTEURS: Sagazio, P.; Cirone, F.; Pratelli, A.; Tempesta, M.; Buonavoglia, D.; Sasanelli, M.; Rubino, G.
SOURCE : Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 1998, Vol.19, No.5, pp.63-67, 25 ref.
ABSTRACT : In serum neutralization tests on 280 dogs, 32 (11.4%) were positive: 6 (3.1%) of 195 out-patients of the Bari University veterinary clinic, 22 (27.9%) of 79 dogs from a kennel in Bari, and 4 (66.6%) of 6 bitches with typical signs of the disease from a breeding premises in Bari.

TITRE : Survey on the seroepidemiology of canine herpesvirus infection in Korea.
AUTEURS: Seo, I. B.; Seong, W. W.; Lim, C. H.
SOURCE : Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 1994, Vol.34, No.3, pp.647-652, 35 ref.
ABSTRACT : A total of 338 serum samples were collected randomly from breeding and companion dogs in different areas in Korea. Antibodies to canine herpesvirus (CHV) were determined using an ELISA. The mean prevalence of CHV infection in dogs was 37% and that of the breeding and companion dogs was 58% and 28%, respectively. The prevalence of CHV infection in Seoul, Kyung-gi, Chung Nam, Cheon Nam and Pusan was 23%, 28%, 18%, 28% and 70%, respectively. The prevalence of CHV infection in dogs less than 6 months of age, over 6 months of age, in male dogs and in female dogs was 26% and 40%, 42% and 33%, respectively. It was concluded that the incidence of CHV infection is high in Korea, especially in breeding dogs and older dogs.

Cas clinique

TITRE : Canine herpetic infection and neonatal mortality in pups: a case report.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Infezione erpetica del cane e mortalita neonatale dei cuccioli: descrizione di un focolaio.
AUTEURS: Decaro, N.; Tinelli, A.; Campolo, M.; Elia, G.; Ventriglia, G.; Terio, V.; Bozzo, G.; Guarda, F.
SOURCE : Veterinaria (Cremona), 2002, Vol.16, No.3, pp.77-82, 38 ref.
ABSTRACT : The authors describe an outbreak of canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV- 1) infection in a litter of nine Corso pups. All pups died after a systemic disease with respiratory symptoms and abdominal pain. The post-mortem findings were suggestive of a CaHV-1 infection, that was confirmed by histological examinations. A CaHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal mucosa and from the kidney of a pup. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CaHV-1 was detected in all the samples examined.


TITRE : Protection of puppies against canine herpesvirus by vaccination of the dams.
AUTEURS: Poulet, H.; Guigal, P. M.; Soulier, M.; Leroy, V.; Fayet, G.; Minke, J.; Chappuis Merial, G.
SOURCE : Veterinary Record, 2001, Vol.148, No.22, pp.691-695, 13 ref.
ABSTRACT : Six bitches free of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) were vaccinated against the virus; a first injection was given 10 days after the presumed date of mating and a second 6 weeks later. Six similar bitches were left unvaccinated as controls, and all the pups were challenged oronasally with a virulent strain of CHV-1 at 3 days of age. All the vaccinated bitches seroconverted and had high antibody titres when the puppies were challenged, but the control bitches remained seronegative. In the control group, 62% (18 of 29) of the pups died of CHV-1- induced disease; most of them showed typical clinical signs and macroscopic lesions, and CHV-1 infection was confirmed by the isolation of the virus or by PCR. None of the puppies in the vaccinated group died of CHV-1 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was confirmed in CHV-1-positive breeding units. The rate of pregnancy tended to be higher in vaccinated bitches and the mortality of pups before weaning was significantly reduced in the litters born to vaccinated bitches.


TITRE : Attachment and penetration of canine herpesvirus 1 in non- permissive cells.
AUTEURS: Nakamichi, K.; Ohara, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Otsuka, H.
SOURCE : Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 2000, Vol.62, No.9, pp.965-970, 34 ref.
ABSTRACT : The early events of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) infection were examined in susceptible Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and in non-susceptible cell lines. Attachment and penetration of CHV-1 were investigated using quantitative competitive PCR. No significant decrease in attachment was observed in any non-susceptible cells. Attachment of CHV-1 to non-susceptible cells was severely impaired by heparin treatment. In susceptible MDCK cells, about 80% of attached CHV-1 penetrated into cells. However, only 4-10% of CHV-1 attached to non-susceptible cells penetrated into cells. It is concluded that CHV-1, like other herpesviruses, can attach to susceptible MDCK cells through two mechanisms: interaction mediated by heparan sulfate on the cell surface; and interaction between an unidentified viral component and cellular receptors. Non-susceptible cells lack the cellular receptor, which is needed for viral penetration into cells.

TITRE : Detection of canine herpesvirus DNA in the ganglionic neurons and the lymph node lymphocytes of latently infected dogs.
AUTEURS: Miyoshi, M.; Ishii, Y.; Takiguchi, M.; Takada, A.; Yasuda, J.; Hashimoto, A.; Okazaki, K.; Kida, H.
SOURCE : Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 1999, Vol.61, No.4, pp.375-379, 21 ref.
ABSTRACT : To determine the site of latent infection of canine herpesvirus (CHV), tissues from dogs convalescent from acute infection with CHV were examined for viral genome DNA by the nested polymerase chain reaction. CHV DNA was detected in the trigeminal ganglia and the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. In situ hybridization study of the tissues showed that CHV genome persisted in the nuclei of ganglionic neurons and lymphocytes.

TITRE : Detection of high levels of canine herpes virus-1 neutralising antibody in kennel dogs using a novel serum neutralisation test.
AUTEURS: Reading, M. J.; Field, H. J.
SOURCE : Research in Veterinary Science, 1999, Vol.66, No.3, pp.273-275, 16 ref.
ABSTRACT : It is widely held that only cells of canine origin support replication and, that cytopathic effect (CPE) develops relatively slowly. Mink fetal lung cells (NBL-7 cell line) were used to produce a sensitive test for neutralizing antibody to canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1). The test was applied to the investigation of CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody levels in 3 kennel populations. 26 of 28 dogs were neutralizing antibody positive (titre more than or equal to 2), and 11 of 28 had titres of more than or equal to 1024. The serum samples were analysed by ELISA; 27 of 28 were graded as ELISA IgG positive (titre more than or equal to 500) and 26 of 28 were graded as ELISA IgM positive (titre more than or equal to 50).

TITRE : Major immunogenic proteins of phocid herpesviruses and their relationships to proteins of canine and feline herpesviruses.
AUTEURS: Harder, T. C.; Harder, M.; Swart, R. L. de; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Liess, B.
SOURCE : Veterinary Quarterly, 1998, Vol.20, No.2, pp.50-55, 41 ref.
ABSTRACT : The immunogenic proteins of cells infected with the alpha- or the gammaherpesvirus of seals, phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 (PhHV-1, -2), were examined in radioimmunoprecipitation assays for further development of a PhHV-1 vaccine. With serum samples from convalescent seals of different species or murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), at least 7 virus-induced glycoproteins were detected in lysates of PhHV-1-infected CrFK cells. A presumed disulfide-linked complex composed of glycoproteins of 59, 67 and 113/120 kDa, expressed on the surface of infected cells, was characterized as a major immunogenic infected cell protein of PhHV-1. This glycoprotein complex has previously been identified as the proteolytically cleavable glycoprotein B homologue of PhHV-1. At least 3 distinct neutralization-relevant epitopes were mapped, by using Mabs, on the glycoprotein B of PhHV-1. Among the infected cell proteins of the antigenically closely related feline and canine herpesvirus, the glycoprotein B equivalent was the most highly conserved glycoprotein. Serum samples from different seal species from Arctic, Antarctic, and Europe did not precipitate uniform patterns of infected cell proteins from PhHV-1-infected cell lysates although titres of neutralizing antibodies were similar. Antigenic differences among the alphaherpesvirus species prevalent in the different pinniped populations cannot be excluded. PhHV-2 showed a different pattern of infected cell proteins and only limited cross-reactivity to PhHV-1 at the protein level was detected, which is in line with its previous classification as a distinct species, based on nucleotide sequence analysis, of the gammaherpesvirus lineage. A Mab raised against PhHV-2 and specific for a major glycoprotein of 117 kDa, cross reacted with the glycoprotein B of PhHV-1. The 117-kDa glycoprotein could represent the uncleaved PhHV-2 glycoprotein B homologue.

TITRE : Detection of canine herpesvirus 1 in a wide range of tissues using the polymerase chain reaction.
AUTEURS: Burr, P. D.; Campbell, M. E. M.; Nicolson, L.; Onions, D. E.
SOURCE : Veterinary Microbiology, 1996, Vol.53, No.3/4, pp.227-237, 34 ref.
ABSTRACT : A 605 bp portion of the viral glycoprotein B (gB) gene of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) was amplified using degenerate primers, cloned, and sequenced. Conventional 20mer primers were designed using this sequence information to amplify a 120 bp fragment of gB situated between the original degenerate primers. The specificity of amplification was confirmed by Southern Blot hybridization using an internal oligonucleotide probe. DNA was extracted from 24 blood samples and from tissue samples taken from 12 dogs which had been killed for a variety of reasons, including old age, liver or kidney failure, or neoplasia. Nine out of 12 dogs showed evidence of infection with CHV-1; the tissues most commonly affected were lumbo- sacral ganglia (5/12 dogs), tonsil (5/12), parotid salivary gland (4/9) and liver (4/9). No positive results were detected within the blood samples. It is concluded that exposure to CHV- 1 may be much more common than previously suggested.

TITRE : Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.
AUTEURS: Xuan, X.; Kojima, A.; Murata, T.; Mikami, T.; Otsuka, H.
SOURCE : Archives of Virology, 1997, Vol.142, No.5, pp.1003-1010, 31 ref.
ABSTRACT : To determine which canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. The results show that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 are the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titres of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection.

TITRE : Infertility in bitches of herpesviral, chlamydial and bacterial aetiology.
TITRE ORIGINAL : Udzial zakazen herpeswirusowych, chlamydiowych i bakteryjnych w nieplodnosci suk.
AUTEURS: Smielewska-Los, E.; Klimentowski, S.; Rypula, K.
SOURCE : Zycie Weterynaryjne, 1997, Vol.72, No.1, pp.17-19, 21 ref.
ABSTRACT : Vaginal swabs were collected from 33 bitches with history of abortion, infertility and fading puppy syndrome. 18 animals originated from breeding establishments and 15 were domestic pets. 12 swabs yielded mixed growth of Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Staphylococcus intermedius. Pure bacterial growth was found in 13 cases: S. aureus 4 strains, S. intermedius 2 strains, S. zooepidemicus 6 strains of which 3 were beta-haemolytic and E. coli 2 haemolytic strains. All haemolytic bacterial strains were isolated from bitches that give birth to weak pups or those that died within the first 14 days. Swabs collected from 7 infertile bitches failed to produce bacterial growth. Canine herpesvirus confirmed in indirect immunofluorescence test was isolated from one bitch. Her whole litter died within one week after birth and Proteus sp. was also isolated from vaginal discharge. Chlamydia psittaci was confirmed in immunofluorescence and ELISA tests in one bitch that aborted 2 months before the examination and showed no clinical symptoms. The significance of these findings in the treatment of infectious causes of infertility in bitches is discussed.

TITRE : Study on the pathogenesis of canine herpesvirus infection 1. Histopathological and electron microscopical observation.
AUTEURS: Seo, I. B.; Lim, C. H.
SOURCE : Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 1994, Vol.34, No.3, pp.569-581, 28 ref.
ABSTRACT : A total of 17 puppies, 1 day old, delivered from 3 canine herpesvirus (CHV) seronegative dams, were divided into 2 groups. 13 puppies were inoculated intranasally with 1 ml of CHV-KK inoculum (5 x 105.6 TCID50/ml) and 4 puppies served as controls. Puppies were killed at 2, 4, 6 and 7 days after inoculation and samples were collected for histopathological and electron microscopical examination (blood, nasal mucosa, trigeminal nerve, trigeminal ganglion, bone marrow, eye, brain and other major organs). The vasculoendothelial cells of the infected puppies were damaged causing a marked reduction in platelets. histopathologically, necrotizing vasculitis and neuritis preceded the generalised focal necrosis of all organs. Necrotic changes in the trigeminal ganglion, trigeminal nerve and ventroposteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus were seen in 4 of the infected puppies. Herpesvirus particles in various forms of maturation were seen in endothelial cells of the alveolar capillary and hepatic sinusoid with electron microscopy. It was concluded that the generalised vasculitis resulted in generalised focal necrosis of all organs including the brain and eyes, and haemonecrotizing meningoencephalitis was related to the necrosis of the trigeminal nerve pathway.

TITRE : Study on the pathogenesis of canine herpesvirus infection. II. Immunohistochemical observation.
AUTEURS: Seo, I. B.; Lim, C. H.
SOURCE : Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 1994, Vol.34, No.3, p.583, 24 ref.
ABSTRACT : A total of 17 puppies, 1 day of age, delivered from 3 canine herpesvirus (CHV) seronegative dams were divided into 2 groups. 13 puppies were inoculated intranasally with 1 ml of CHV-KK inoculum (5 x 105.6 TCID50/ml) and 4 puppies were used as controls. Puppies were killed at 2, 4, 6 and 7 days after treatment and samples were collected of nasal mucosa, trigeminal nerve, trigeminal ganglion, bone marrow, eye, brain and other major organs for immunohistochemical examination. Distribution of CHV antigens was limited to the cytoplasm and necrotic nasal epithelium at 2 days post infection (p.i.). At 4 days p.i., CHV antigens were detected in vascular walls and peripheral nerves of nasal lamina propria, reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, interstitial cells of the kidney and leptomeningeal vascular and alveolar walls. At 6 and 7 days p.i., CHV antigens were detected in all of the necrotic area. CHV antigens were also detected in vascular endothelial cells of various organs and in blood leukocytes from 4 days after infection. Of 6 puppies in which necrotic lesions of the central nervous system were observed, CHV antigens were detected in the trigeminal ganglion, trigeminal nerve and ventroposteriomedial nucleus of 4 puppies and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of 3 puppies. It was concluded that the generalised focal necrosis of all organs including the brain and eyes in CHV infection resulted from generalised vasculitis with leukocyte-associated viraemia and the haemonecrotizing meningoencephalitis resulted from the spread of CHV via the blood and nerve trunk.

TITRE : Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD homologues.
AUTEURS: Limbach, K. J.; Limbach, M. P.; Conte, D.; Paoletti, E.
SOURCE : Journal of General Virology, 1994, Vol.75, No.8, pp.2029-2039, 55 ref.
ABSTRACT : The nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) gB, gC and gD homologues was determined. These genes are predicted to encode polypeptides of 879, 459 and 345 aminoacids, respectively. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of CHV gB, gC and gD with the homologous sequences from other herpesviruses indicates that CHV is an alphaherpesvirus, a conclusion that is consistent with the previous classification of this virus according to biological properties. Alignment of the homologous gB, gC and gD aminoacid sequences indicates that most of the cysteine residues are conserved, suggesting that these glycoproteins possess similar tertiary structures. The nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame downstream from the CHV gC gene was also determined. The predicted amino acid sequence of this putative polypeptide appears to be homologous to a family of proteins encoded downstream from the gC gene in most, although not all, alphaherpesviruses.

TITRE : Virus reactivation in bitches with a medical history of herpesvirus infection.
AUTEURS: Okuda, Y.; Ishida, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushi, H.; Hirai, K.; Carmichael, L. E.
SOURCE : American Journal of Veterinary Research, 1993, Vol.54, No.4, pp.551-554, 32 ref.
ABSTRACT : Virological and pathological investigations were carried out on prednisolone-treated bitches with a history of canine herpesvirus (CHV) infection. Reactivation of CHV was demonstrated in 5 Beagle bitches after daily administration of 600 mg of prednisolone for 5 days. The reactivation was confirmed in 4 of 5 bitches. Canine herpesvirus was recovered from nasal, oral, vaginal, and ocular secretions on the 5th to 21st days after initiation of treatment with prednisolone, and also from nasal mucosa and tonsil tissues. It is concluded that latent CHV infections develop and that the virus may be reactivated, without clinical signs, in dogs with a history of CHV infection.

TITRE : Repeated canine herpesvirus (CHV) reactivation in dogs by an immunosuppressive drug.
AUTEURS: Okuda, Y.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Tani, M.; Hirai, K.; Carmichael, L.
SOURCE : Cornell Veterinarian, 1993, Vol.83, No.4, pp.291-302, 18 ref.
ABSTRACT : To examine the possibility of repeated reactivation of canine herpesvirus (CHV), 2 serial treatments with the corticosteroid drug prednisolone (PD) were given at different periods following oral-nasal infection of pups and adult dogs. CHV was not recovered from infected, untreated dogs or from uninfected, treated controls. Viral reactivation of CHV, without clinical signs, was induced twice in 2 of 3 adults and in 2 of 3 puppies treated at intervals that ranged from 1 to 3 months following the initial infections. Highest viral titres were obtained from nasal swab samples, with lower titres found in the oral pharynx, penis or vagina. In some, but not all dogs, the infectivity titres of the nasal secretion samples were higher after the initial prednisolone treatments than after the second treatments. The duration of viral shedding after the second series of steroid treatments also was shorter than the shedding period following the initial reactivations. It is suggested that the latent CHV occurs in both puppies and adult dogs following infection and that active infections, with viral shedding, may occur repeatedly for prolonged, but undetermined, periods.

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