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Une sélection commentée d'une vingtaine d'articles en bibliographie sur Internet avec d'autres compléments.
Jongh O. et Cadoré J.L., La maladie de Carré dans l'espèce canine. Point Vétérinaire 1994, 25 (158), 919-926.
Semaine Vétérinaire 998, page 32. Le vaccin Dohyvac® 5 suspendu un an par précaution pour cause de maladie de Carré.
Semaine Vétérinaire 1034, page 50. Dohyvac® 5 : Le vaccin CHPPi de Fort Dodge est de retour.
Comment déclarer un effet indésirable de médicaments.
Les cas d'effets indésirables grave ou inattendu (non décrits dans la notice) doivent obligatoirement être déclarés par un vétérinaire (et non le propriétaire) auprès d'un des deux centres de pharmacovigilance qui sont ouverts 24h/24 et 365 jours par an dans les écoles vétérinaires de
1/ Lyon : 04 78 87 10 40
2/ Nantes : 02 40 68 77 40
Ces cas doivent ensuite être notifiés par écrit sur le formulaire ci-joint.
Sélection bibliographique d'après CAB International
Comparaison de vaccins :
• Canine distemper virus neutralising antibodies in vaccinated dogs.
Rikula, U.;Nuotio, L.;Sihvonen, L., Veterinary Record, 2000, 147 (21), 598-603.
Retenir : Tous les vaccins n'induisent pas les mêmes niveaux d'anticorps séroneutralisants.
Abstract : The associations between the levels of canine distemper virus neutralizing antibodies and vaccination history, age and sex were investigated in a cross-sectional study of a sample of 4627 dogs from the Finnish urban dog population. Dogs vaccinated with either Canlan (Langford Laboratories) or Dohyvac (Solvay Animal Health) or with both, had significantly lower titres than those vaccinated with Candur (Behringwerke), Duramune (Fort Dodge Laboratories) or Nobivac (Intervet), or with combinations including at least one of these. The vaccines were classified as having low and high immunogenicity on the basis of the geometric mean titre achieved by the vaccine compared with the geometric mean titre of the entire dataset. The low geometric mean titre of Canlan, Dohyvac and their combination groups resulted from the large proportion of dogs without detectable titres, especially dogs under one year of age, rather than from uniformly low titres. An age-stratified comparison of vaccine usage and titres showed that the division of the vaccines into low and high immunogenicity vaccines was apparent in the dogs less than 2 years of age but not in the older dogs. The first vaccination with the high immunogenicity vaccines resulted in a higher proportion of dogs with detectable antibodies than even repeated vaccination with the low immunogenicity vaccines. Neither the time elapsed since the last vaccination nor sex was associated with antibody titre.
Durée de l'immunité
• Duration of antibodies elicited by canine distemper virus vaccinations in dogs.
Olson, P.;Finnsdóttir, H.;Klingeborn, B.;Hedhammar, A.
Veterinary Record, 1997, 141 (25), 654-655
Abstract In a study to estimate the persistence of antibodies following canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination, blood samples from 30 vaccinated dogs imported to Iceland, which has been distemper-free since 1967, and from 10 native non-vaccinated Icelandic dogs were tested for CDV antibodies using the virus neutralization test. None of the native Icelandic dogs had detectable titres but 73% of the 30 dogs which had been imported from 4-10 years earlier had titres more than or equal to 1/16. 7 of 10 dogs who had received only one vaccination had titres more than or equal to 1/16. It is concluded that the duration of immunity after vaccination with live CDV vaccines probably lasts much longer than indicated by manufacturers' documentation. It is suggested that alternatives to the in vivo challenge test as a measurement of efficacy could be developed for pet animals in a fashion similar to that used in humans.
• Serum distemper virus and parvovirus antibody titers among dogs brought to a veterinary hospital for revaccination.
McCaw, D. L.;Thompson, M.;Tate, D.;Bonderer, A.;Chen YiJu
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1998, 213 (1), 72-75
Résumé Sur 122 chiens vaccinés « Carré » depuis neuf mois à 4 ans, 21 % ne présentent pas de titres en anticorps protecteurs (= 1:96). D'où l'intérêt des rappels annuels.
Abstract Serum antibody titres against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) were measured in 122 dogs using serum neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition. All dogs had been vaccinated between 271 and 1665 days previously. Dogs were grouped by age, breed (purebred vs. mixed breed), sex and weight to determine whether these factors were associated with antibody titres. Serum CPV titres more than or equal to 1:80 and serum CDV titres more than or equal to 1:96 were considered protective. Breed, sex and weight were not significantly associated with serum CPV and CDV titres. Age was significantly associated with CPV titre, with younger dogs having higher titres, but was not associated with CDV titre. 33 of 122 (27%) dogs had a less-than-protective CPV titre and 25 of 117 (21%) dogs had a less-than-protective CDV titre. It is suggested that the current practice of annual revaccination of dogs against CPV and CDV infection should be maintained. Measurement of antibody titres to determine whether revaccination is truly needed would seem justifiable in those dogs that have previously had an adverse reaction to vaccination.
Epizootie en France en 1987-89
Résumé des deux articles signés des mêmés auteurs.
Dans l'épizootie française, les chiens étaient souvent soit jeunes, âgés de 3 à 12 mois ; soit plus âgés (plus de 5 ans). Un tiers des cas présentait des signes nerveux. La mortalité était de 80 %. L'épizootie est probablement reliée au faible taux de vaccination de la population canine. Les hypothèses de réversion de virulence ou de manque de protection des vaccins sont écartées.
• Canine distemper - conclusions from an outbreak in France (Hundestaupe: Lehren aus einer Epizootie in Frankreich).
Adelus-Neveu, F.;Saint-Gérand, A. L.;Fayet, G.;Wiedemann, C.
Praktische Tierarzt, 1991, 72 (10), 866,869-871.
Abstract A report on a canine distemper outbreak in France from 1987 to 1989 is given. Geographical and temporal spread of the disease as well as age distribution, clinical forms and vaccination history in the dogs concerned suggest poor population immunity due to low number of dogs vaccinated against the disease. Other possible reasons like emergence of a mutant field strain, reversion to virulence of the vaccine virus or insufficient efficacy of vaccines are rejected. Important factors influencing distemper protection by vaccination are discussed.
• La malade de Carré: les leçons d'une épizootie.
Adelus-Neveu, F.;Saint-Gérand, A. L.;Fayet, G.
Pratique Médicale & Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie, 1991, 26 (5), 455-461
Abstract An epidemic of dog distemper occurred throughout France during 1987-89. Dogs of age groups 3-12 months and over 5 years were particularly affected, though in breeding kennels dogs of all age groups were of similar susceptibility. A third of cases had nervous signs. Overall mortality was 80%. The probable reason for the epidemic was the low immune status of the dog population: at the onset of the epidemic only 20-25% of the dogs had been vaccinated.
Epizootie en Finlande de 1994-1995
• A descriptive epidemiological study of canine distemper in Finland in 1994. (Kuvaileva epidemiologinen tutkimus koirien penikkataudista Suomessa vuonna 1994.)
Lounela, H.;Niemelä, O.;Tanskanen, R.;Ek-Kommonen, C.;Sihvonen, L.
Suomen Eläinlääkärilehti, 1997, 103 (12), 720-726
Abstract The study covered 566 cases of distemper confirmed in 1994. The number of cases increased from July to October, starting in the Helsinki area, and then declined. There was no breed disposition, although mixed breed dogs were the largest group. More males than females were effected. Most clinical signs were typical except for more frequent dermatological signs. 64% of the dogs had been properly vaccinated and of these the proportion vaccinated with Dohyvac (Solvay Animal Health) vaccine was higher than expected from the number of this vaccine sold.
Retenir : Sur les 566 cas confirmés de maladie de Carré de cette épizzote dans la région d'Helsinki, 64 % étaient bien vaccinés contre la maladie de Carré. La proportion de cas vaccinés avec le vaccin Dohyvac® était plus élevé que ne pouvait le laisser attendre le nombre de doses vendus.
• Outbreak of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs in Finland.
Ek-Kommonen, C.;Sihvonen, L.;Pekkanen, K.;Rikula, U.;Nuotio, L.
Veterinary Record, 1997, 141 (15), 380-383
Résumé : Dans l'épizootie de 1994-95 en Finlande, le tableau est le suivant :
- Mortalité 30 %
- Signes cliniques : conjonctivite, anorexie, fièvre, signes respiratoires, digestifs.
- Age : 3 mois à deux ans dans 73 % des 865 cas confirmés.
- 56 % (487/865) étaient vaccinés et 41 % (351/865) correctement vaccinés.
La diminution du taux de vaccination des jeunes chiens entre 1990 et 1994 est la raison majeure évoquée pour le déclenchement de cette épizootie.
Abstract Canine distemper reappeared in dogs in Finland in 1990 after a 16-year absence. In 1994 to 1995 an outbreak in areas with a high density dog population involved dogs vaccinated against distemper. The estimated total number of cases was at least 5000, and 865 cases were confirmed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing of 3649 epithelial cell samples. The clinical signs ranged from conjunctivitis, pyrexia and anorexia to signs of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness, with an estimated mortality of 30%. Of the confirmed cases 631 (73%) were between 3 and 24 months of age; 487 of these had been vaccinated at least once and 351 (41%) had a complete vaccination history. Of these 351 fully vaccinated animals the proportion of dogs vaccinated with the most popular vaccine was significantly higher than would have been expected by its market share. In total, 4676 serum samples were collected from healthy vaccinated dogs during the peak and decline of the outbreak and tested for virus neutralising antibodies. The decrease in the proportion of young dogs with antibody titres <1/8 coincided with the decline and end of the outbreak during the spring and summer of 1995. It was concluded that a critical decrease in the population's immunity during 1990 to 1994 was a major reason for the outbreak in the summer of 1994 and that the ultimate test for vaccines is an outbreak of disease.
• A review of the canine distemper epidemic of 1994-95 and vaccinations in Finland. (Yhteenveto penikkatautiepidemiasta 1994-95 ja rokotuksista.)
Sihvonen, L.;Ek-Kommonen, C.;Pekkanen, K.
Suomen Eläinlääkärilehti, 1995, 101 (9), 549-551
Résumé : Sur 790 chiens confirmés atteints de maladie de Carré, entre janvier et mars 1995, 74 % étaient vaccinés au moins une fois, 4 % n'étaient pas vaccinés et 22 % de statut non connu.
Abstract 790 dogs were diagnosed with canine distemper from January 1995 to March 1995 in Finland out of 2821 examined cases. Out of the confirmed cases 4 % were unvaccinated, 22% had an unknown vaccination status and 74% had been vaccinated at least once. The efficacy of vaccination protocols and vaccines is discussed with special reference on factors modulating the immune response.
Epizootie au Danemark en 1996-1997
• Outbreaks of distemper in fur animals and dogs in summer, 1997. (Udbrud af hvalpesyge hos pelsdyr og hundesyge hos hunde i sommeren).
Henriksen, P.;Dietz, H.;Holmen, T.;Rattenborg, E.
Dansk Pelsdyravl, 1997, 60 (8), 346-348
Retenir : La vaccination est efficace pour prévenir les signes cliniques de la maladie. Mais, les chiens vaccinés sont des porteurs asymptomatiques du virus.
Abstract There have been sporadic outbreaks of distemper on fur farms in Denmark (2-3 a year from 1990). From 1993, all of the outbreaks had been north of Lim Fjord, but in 1996 more cases were recorded on the southern edge of this area, and in June 1997 it was recommended that all breeders north of the fjord should carry out preventive vaccination; vaccine sales showed, however, that only about 10% of the animals were vaccinated at that time. In July 1997 cases were reported in fur farms scattered through Jutland and Fyn, and there was a massive increase in the use of vaccines (some combined vaccines with viral enteritis). In general the symptoms were mild, with muscle cramps and spasms, but no scabs around the eyes or nose. Distemper in dogs had occurred sporadically throughout the country, with 4-36 cases being reported annually in recent years, until July 1997, when there were 35 cases, mainly in the Copenhagen area. Ocular discharge, reduced appetite, and fever were observed. During a 5-week period, covering July, there were 24 reported outbreaks in fur forms, with the peak in the middle of the month; in dogs there were 37 cases, with the numbers still rising. Work is in progress to find reasons for the increased numbers of cases in 1997, and to look for possible links between the cases in fur animals and dogs. It is known that vaccinated dogs, although symptom free, can be carriers of the disease. The importance of keeping farm dogs within their farm, and preventing other dogs from entering is emphasized.
• Studies on manifestations of canine distemper virus infection in an urban dog population.
Blixenkrone-Moller, M.;Svansson, V.;Have, P.;Örvell, C.;Appel, M.;Pedersen, I. R.;Dietz, H. H.;Henriksen, P.
Veterinary Microbiology, 1993, 37 (1/2), 163-173.
Résumé : La majorité des cas de maladie de Carré ont été diagnostiqués sur des chiens non vaccinés ou au statut immunitaire inconnu. Cependant, de nombreux cas cliniques sont aussi diagnostiqués sur des chiens vaccinés.
Abstract An upsurge of canine distemper was recognized at the beginning of 1991 in the urban dog population of the Copenhagen area. The outbreak had the characteristics of a virulent morbillivirus introduction in a partly immune population, where the disease primarily was manifested in young dogs. Testing of single serum samples for the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) IgM antibodies using an IgM ELISA confirmed current and recent CDV infections in an urban dog population where the use of attenuated CDV vaccines was widespread. In 49 out of 66 sera from clinical cases suspected of canine distemper CDV IgM antibodies were detected, as compared to the detection of viral antigen by indirect immunofluorescence in 27 of 65 specimens of conjunctival cells. The antigenic make-up of isolates from acute and subacute clinical cases was investigated with a panel of 51 monoclonal antibodies directed against CDV and the related phocine distemper virus. The isolates exhibited an homogenous reaction pattern and shared overall antigenic characteristics of the CDV prototype. The majority of cases were diagnosed among un-vaccinated dogs and dogs with unknown or obscure vaccination record. However, severe clinical cases were also diagnosed in vaccinated dogs.
Étude rétrospective au Japon
• Retrospective study of the incidence of canine distemper between 1980 and 1994 in the Miyazaki area.
Inomata, T.;Kai, C.;Hasegawa, T.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Japan, 1996, 49 (10), 807-813
Résumé : Sur 15 ans, la prévalence de la maladie est de 1,5 % (158 cas sur 10423 chiens présentés dans une école vétérinaire japonaise), entre 0,15 % et 2,82 % par an. L'incidence de la maladie n'a pas diminué malgré la vaccination.
Abstract- Distemper was diagnosed in 158 (1.5%) of the 10 423 dogs presented to the veterinary teaching hospital of Miyazaki University in the 15-year period. The percentage of dogs affected each year ranged from 0.15 to 2.82 (2.1% in 1994). Although the clinical signs varied, fever, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis and leukocytosis were generally observed. The incidence of the disease has not declined despite mandatory vaccination.
• An outbreak of canine distemper in a dogs home with vaccinated population of dogs. (Ein Ausbruch von Hundestaupe in einem Tierheim mit vakzinierter Hundepopulation.)
Harder, T. C.;Kuczka, A.;Dubberke, M.;Pohlenz, J.;Liess, B.
Kleintierpraxis, 1991, 36 (6), 305-314
Résumé : Dans ce cas clinique, le diagnostic de maladie de Carré est posé dans un élavage regulièrement vacciné.
AB- In a dogs home in northern Germany 28 of 47 dogs were sick. Based on clinical signs, pathological and histopathological lesions, infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) was suspected, and was later confirmed by virus isolation from leukocytes and fresh organ cultures and by serological methods (immunofluorescence, neutralization test). In 2 cases 'hard pad disease' developed. The outbreak occurred in spite of the fact that all dogs in the home were regularly vaccinated.
• Canine distemper infection in pet dogs: II. A case-control study of risk factors during a suspected outbreak in Indiana.
Patronek, G. J.;Glickman, L. T.;Johnson, R.;Emerick, T. J.
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 1995, 31 (3), 230-235
Résumé : L'absence de vaccination conduit à un risque de maladie de Carré 350 fois plus élévé.
Abstract The epidemiological features of an outbreak of canine distemper during 1992 and 1993 in pet dogs in Indiana are described. Risk factors for disease were characterized using hospital records of private veterinary practitioners. The risk of disease for purebred dogs was 85% lower than the risk of disease for mixed-breed dogs. Lack of vaccination was associated with a 350-fold increase in the risk of canine distemper, and 93.8% of all cases could be attributed to the lack of vaccination. For many of the owners, the cost of medical treatment exceeded the cost of a vaccination program.
• Examinations on the humoral immune response in puppies after first immunisation with various combined vaccines. I. Distemper-virus-component. (Untersuchungen zur humoralen Immunantwort bei Junghunden nach Grundimmunisierung mit verschiedenen Kombinationsimpfstoffen I. Staupeviruskomponente.)
Kölbl, S.;Tschabrun, S.;Schuller, W.
Kleintierpraxis, 1995, 40 (11), 851-865
Résumé : Tous les vaccins n'induisent pas la même réponse immunitaire (IgG) chez les chiots. La présence d'anticorps maternels nuit à une réponse immunitaire. La réponse sérologique varie entre 64 % et 100 % sur ces chots vaccinés à 9-11 semaines et 13-14 semaines d'âge.
Abstract Five combined vaccines were tested in 63 puppies. The 1st vaccination was performed at the age of 9-11, the 2nd vaccination at the age of 13-14 weeks. The IgG titres were determined by the indirect immunofluorescence assay at the time of the 1st vaccination, the 2nd vaccination and 4 weeks after the 2nd vaccination. All dogs with titres more than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. All dogs vaccinated with Enduracell (13 dogs), Vetanum (13) and Canlan DPAL (12) showed positive antibody titres at the 3rd examination after vaccination. Three, 2 and 3 puppies in these groups showed positive prevaccination IgG titres against canine distemper virus, respectively. Four out of 13 puppies vaccinated with Dohyvac Galaxy+L had positive IgG titres before vaccination; 7 dogs showed positive antibody titres (64 %) after vaccination. The fifth group of 12 puppies was vaccinated with Canine SH+LT. Two of the animals had positive IgG titres before vaccination. At the 3rd examination, 91% of the animals showed positive titres.
• Clinical and laboratory findings in dogs with distemper encephalomyelitis. (Observacões clínicas e laboratoriais em cães com cinomose nervosa)
Tudury, E. A.;Arias, M. V. B.;Bracarense, A. P. F. L.;Megid, J.;Dias Júnior, R. F.
Ciência Rural,1997, 27 (2), 229-235
Retenir : La présence des corps de Lentz dans d'autres tissus que le système nerveux n'est retrouvé que dans 30 à 45 % des cas. La plupart (mais pas tous) des 81 chiens de cette étude n'étaient pas vaccinés.
Abstract - Eighty-one dogs with clinical signs and histological lesions characteristic of distemper encephalomyelitis were evaluated. Only dogs with Lenz inclusion bodies in the central nervous system were included in the study. Highly prevalent findings included changes in postural reactions (87.65%), decreased tear production (83.95%), myoclonus (75.30%), paresis (69.12%), conjunctivitis (56.79%), and chorioretinitis/digital and nasal hyperkeratosis (51.85%). Anaemia (48.05%), lymphopenia (51.95%) and mild changes in the cerebrospinal fluid characterized by an increase in total protein (77.33%) and lymphocytic pleocytosis (50.72%) were common observations. Presence of Lenz inclusion bodies in tissues other than the nervous system varied from 30 to 45%, with a higher frequency in the lymph nodes. Most dogs examined had not been properly vaccinated.